Category Archives: Nootropics

Vitamin B4 (Choline)

Vitamin B4 (Choline)

Choline (from the Greek χολή – bile) – vitamin-like substance having membran oprotektornym (protects cell membranes from damage and destruction), antiatherosclerotic (reduces cholesterol in the blood), neuroprotective, antidepressant, sedative effect. Choline improves metabolism in nervous tissue, prevents the formation of gallstones, and normalizes the metabolism of fats and helps reduce weight.

Richest choline product – egg yolk . Good sources are liver , kidney , cottage cheese. Unrefined vegetable oils, legumes, certain vegetables ( cabbage , spinach ) also contain choline.

The daily requirement for choline is 0.5 g

Choline and its salts and esters are registered as a food additive E1001 .

Choline plays an important role in the normal functioning of the nervous system. He is involved in the formation of the protective myelin sheath of nerves. The presence of choline in the body prevents the destruction of the myelin layer from damage to nerve cells. And choline – an essential component of the phospholipids (membrane) of cells.

Choline is a precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine – a neurotransmitter important transmitter of the nerve impulse. Thus, choline prevents nervous system disorders.

Choline is also hepatoprotector accelerates structural restoration of damaged liver tissue with toxic effects of drugs, viruses, alcohol and drugs. It improves liver function, prevents the formation of gallstones.

In combination with lecithin, vitamin B4 promotes transport and metabolism of fats in the liver and its deficiency in the diet leads to its fatty degeneration (steatosis).

Choline stimulates enzymatic digestion of fats, normalizing lipid metabolism; promotes better absorption of fat soluble vitamins: vitamin A , vitamin D , vitamin E , vitamin K .

Choline reduces the concentration of cholesterol and fatty acids in the blood, clears plaques from cholesterol vessel walls. Choline contributes to the formation of methionine, thereby withdrawing excess of a special substance – homocysteine ​​increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. As a result, choline, strengthens the heart muscle, normalizes heart rhythm.

In the pancreas, vitamin B4 involved in carbohydrate metabolism. It strengthens the membrane beta cells which produce insulin, thereby normalize blood sugar levels. In type I diabetes mellitus use choline, reduces the need for insulin. In diabetes type II choline helps to compensate for deficiency in polyunsaturated fatty acids, in order to reduce excess levels of insulin (excess insulin is one of the factors in the development of type II diabetes).

Choline plays an important role in human reproduction. He is involved in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins in the prostate gland, increases sperm motility, in old age prevents disruption of the prostate gland.

In the late eighties of the last century was an experiment: English psychophysiologists were given 10 grams of choline group of volunteers for 10 days. Tests conducted at the beginning and end of the experiment showed a significant improvement of short term memory test.

Choline – is the most important building blocks of the brain. Additional use it in food pregnant (fetus can not produce its own) and the children of the first five years of life has a positive effect on the mental abilities of children.

Lack of indicators (IMR) of choline in the body are:

irritability, nervous breakdowns, fatigue;
diarrhea (with fatty foods), gastritis;
deterioration of the liver;
high blood pressure;


Nootropil Piracetam Enhances learning and memory.
Increases retention of learned behaviors in the presence of conditions, such as electric shock and hypoxia, that tend to disrupt learning.
Nootropil Piracetam Protects the brain from the effects of injuries with physical or chemical causes, such as the overuse of barbiturates.
Helps the brain control muscle contractions more efficiently.
Has extremely low toxicity, few side effects and does not produce side effects, such as sedation, common to other psychotropic drugs.